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for 1 last update 2020/08/05 AFPAFP Journal Club

The Story Behind the Study

 

MARK A. GRABER, MD, University of Iowa Carver College of Medicine, Iowa City, Iowa

ANDREA DARBY-STEWART, MD, Mayo Clinic Family Medicine Residency Program, Scottsdale, Arizona

ROBERT DACHS, MD, FAAFP, St. Clare''s Article

Kahn SE, Haffner SM, Heise MA, et al., for the ADOPT Study Group. Glycemic durability of rosiglitazone, metformin, or glyburide monotherapy [published correction appears in N Engl J Med. 2007;356(13):1387–1388]. N Engl J Med. 2006;355(23):2427–2443.

Which controls type 2 diabetes best at five years: rosiglitazone, metformin, or glyburide?

how to raise blood sugar level from 60's cartoons photos of doraemon ☑how to how to raise blood sugar level from 60's cartoons photos of doraemon for Mark: For the estimated 20 million Americans with type 2 diabetes, this is a very important question. This article is an excellent demonstration of why reading just the abstract could lead you to the wrong conclusion.

What does this article say?

how to raise blood sugar level from 60's cartoons photos of doraemon ⭐️how to how to raise blood sugar level from 60's cartoons photos of doraemon for Mark: This study randomized 4,360 patients to monotherapy with rosiglitazone (Avandia), metformin (Glucophage), or glyburide (Micronase). The end point was fasting blood glucose over 180 mg per dL. The authors concluded that, at five years, only 15 percent of patients taking rosiglitazone failed mono-therapy versus 21 percent of those taking metformin and 34 percent taking glyburide. Although the abstract trumpets rosiglitazone as “the winner,” this is exactly the wrong conclusion to draw from this study.

Should we believe this study?

Mark: How did the authors come to the incorrect conclusion? First, fasting blood glucose was the wrong end point to measure. This is a surrogate marker of disease that does not correlate with clinical outcomes. Using such surrogate markers as end points is known as “DOE” or “disease-oriented evidence.” What we care about are patient out-comes, such as adverse cardiovascular events; these are known as “POEMs” or “patient-oriented evidence that matters.” Fasting blood glucose is a surrogate marker that is, perhaps, just as dependent on the half-life of the drug and when the drug was administered as anything else.

What about the more accepted gold standard A1C values (itself a DOE)? There was a negligible difference of 0.13 percent favoring the rosiglitazone group over the metformin group. This miniscule difference is clinically meaningless; it takes the 1 last update 2020/08/05 an increase of at least 1 percent in A1C level to barely increase the relative risk of a cardiovascular event to 1.18 (95% CI, 1.1 to 1.26).1What about the more accepted gold standard A1C values (itself a DOE)? There was a negligible difference of 0.13 percent favoring the rosiglitazone group over the metformin group. This miniscule difference is clinically meaningless; it takes an increase of at least 1 percent in A1C level to barely increase the relative risk of a cardiovascular event to 1.18 (95% CI, 1.1 to 1.26).1

And what did the study show about the clinical end points that we are really interested in, such as cardiovascular events? Patients on rosiglitazone had more CHF and a greater number of cardiovascular events than those on metformin or glyburide. These are the end points that matter.

Bob: Also, there was an average weight gain of 10.6 lb (4.8 kg) with rosiglitazone the 1 last update 2020/08/05 and 3.5 lb (1.6 kg) with glyburide, which is not something we need in patients with type 2 diabetes. Metformin resulted in a net weight loss of 6.4 lb (2.9 kg) over five years.Bob: Also, there was an average weight gain of 10.6 lb (4.8 kg) with rosiglitazone and 3.5 lb (1.6 kg) with glyburide, which is not something we need in patients with type 2 diabetes. Metformin resulted in a net weight loss of 6.4 lb (2.9 kg) over five years.

Mark: What disturbs me most is that the conclusion in the abstract is different from the conclusion in the body of the paper. What the authors conclude in the paper is that the “findings confirm the value of metformin as an initial treatment for type 2 diabetes.” This is entirely different than what they concluded in the abstract.

Andrea: This disconnect between what is reported in the body of a paper and what is promoted in the abstract is not a new problem. In a review of first-tier journals, the data in the abstract differed from the data in the paper up to 68 percent of the time.2 This tells you that if you just read the abstract, you may be misled.

Additionally, the common use of surrogate outcomes is problematic. For example, we don''t help your heart, oh, and by the way, there is a small chance it may make you worse.” Any takers?

Andrea: I agree. Start with metformin. This study should also serve as a warning that abstracts may not reflect the true results of a study, even in journals like the New England Journal of Medicine. You should evaluate the study yourself before you change your clinical practice (or find a group of medical nerds like us to do it for you).

Main Points

  • Glitazones are associated with fluid retention, increased CHF rates, and, possibly, increased rates of cardiovascular events compared with sulfonylureas and metformin.

  • The FDA and the Canadian government have issued warnings about CHF and cardiovascular events with rosiglitazone.

  • Metformin should be the first-line drug for managing type 2 diabetes. Insulin and sulfonylureas should be second line, and glitazones should be reserved for third line.

  • Metformin is the only drug for type 2 diabetes that does not cause weight gain, which is an important advantage.

Main Points
  • Glitazones are associated with fluid retention, increased CHF rates, and, possibly, increased rates of cardiovascular events compared with sulfonylureas and metformin.

  • The FDA and the Canadian government have issued warnings about CHF and cardiovascular events with rosiglitazone.

  • Metformin should be the first-line drug for managing type 2 diabetes. Insulin and sulfonylureas should be second line, and glitazones should be reserved for third line.

  • Metformin is the only drug for type 2 diabetes that does not cause weight gain, which is an important advantage.

how to raise blood sugar level from 60's cartoons photos of doraemon 🔴how to how to raise blood sugar level from 60's cartoons photos of doraemon for EBM for 1 last update 2020/08/05 PointsEBM Points

  • The data and conclusion in the abstract of an article may not be the same as the data in the paper. If you read only for 1 last update 2020/08/05 the abstract, you may be misled.The data and conclusion in the abstract of an article may not be the same as the data in the paper. If you read only the abstract, you may be misled.

  • A lot of studies use surrogate markers as outcomes (e.g., fasting or postprandial blood glucose, FEV1). These are DOEs. What we care about are POEMs (e.g., stroke rates, MI rates, quality of life).

  • Something can be statistically significant but clinically meaningless (for example, A1C difference of 0.08 percent).

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Address correspondence to Mark A. Graber, MD, at [email protected] Reprints are not available from the authors.

Author disclosure: Nothing to disclose.

References

show all references

how to raise blood sugar level from 60's cartoons photos of doraemon 🔴how to how to raise blood sugar level from 60's cartoons photos of doraemon for 1. Selvin E, Marinopoulos S, Berkenblit G, et al. Meta-analysis: glycosylated hemoglobin and cardiovascular disease in diabetes mellitus. Ann Intern Med. 2004;141(6):421–431....

2. Pitkin RM, Branagan MA, Burmeister LF. Accuracy of data in abstracts of published research articles. JAMA. 1999;281(12):1110–1111.

how to raise blood sugar level from 60's cartoons photos of doraemon 👍how to how to raise blood sugar level from 60's cartoons photos of doraemon for 3. Verma S, Strauss M. Angiotensin receptor blockers and myocardial infarction. BMJ. 2004;329(7477)1248–1249.

4. Lindholm LH, Carlberg B, Samuelsson O. Should beta blockers remain first choice in the treatment of primary hypertension? A meta-analysis. Lancet. 2005;366(9496)1545–1553.

for 1 last update 2020/08/05 5. 5. how to raise blood sugar level from 60's cartoons photos of doraemon 👍how to how to raise blood sugar level from 60's cartoons photos of doraemon for Nissen SE, Wolski K. Effect of rosiglitazone on the risk of myocardial infarction and death from cardiovascular causes [published correction appears in N Engl J Med. 2007;357(1):100]. N Engl J Med. 2007;356(24):2457–2471.

For more information on EBM terms, see the EBM Toolkit at https://www.aafp.org/afp/ebmtoolkit.

 

 

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Home / Journals / afp how to raise blood sugar level from 60's cartoons photos of doraemon 🔴how to how to raise blood sugar level from 60's cartoons photos of doraemon for / Vol. 77/No. 1(January 1, 2008) / AFP Journal Club: Choosing First-Line Therapy for Management of Type 2 Diabetes